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海外视角看“汽配出海”路径新变化和准入标准

2022/12/6 10:02:37 David 原创

将零部件打入海外市场可以通过许多不同的路径,并非每种路径都放之四海而皆准,认清自身情况,选对路径,这条出海之路才有机会走上坦途。

汽配出海

在这个快速变化的汽车售后市场中,如何将零部件送到维修厂或消费者手中,在世界范围内,可以采取许多不同的路径。

随着中国国内市场的竞争越来越激烈,许多公司,包括贸易公司和制造商都在寻求海外扩张,将其产品卖到美国、巴西、德国、墨西哥、东南亚、非洲和其他地区等海外市场。

中国零配件制造商看到这个发展变化,也必然会依据他们认为最可能取得成功的市场途径,来制定相关决策。

将零部件打入海外市场可以通过许多不同的方式进行,如何执行这些扩张计划也有各种模式。

首先让我们来梳理一下目前零部件进入海外市场的路径。

01、出口模式

以自己的品牌销售给目标市场客户或为客户贴牌的模式进入目标市场。这是在海外做生意的最常见的模式。

通常情况下,这些出口机会是通过制造商或贸易商在全球零部件的重要展会中得到,这些展会包括法兰克福国际汽车零部件展(Automechanika Frankfurt)、AAPEX、上海国际汽车零部件展(Automechanika Shanghai)等。出口模式,货物通常以FOB(离岸价)或DDP(完税后交货)完成销售。

许多在海外没有配置仓储等基础设施的主体,利用这种途径进入市场。这种模式下,海外客户通常需要整集装箱下单来平衡运费成本,然后通过他们的网络在目标市场销售。

这种方式对于初期进行外贸的企业非常有效,但是由于它对客户的起订量要求比较高,这就限制了向更多无法大批量下单客户的销售机会。

02、跨境电子商务模式

这种市场方式很热,而且发展迅速。这种模式对初期尝试外贸的贸易企业(主要为经销商)会更为有效,他们不需要有很大的规模、完善的数据,电商平台就是他们天然的宣传舞台,平台的用户、功能、数据,都为业务的发展提供了沃土。

03、感度模式

中国的 "Pep Boys",采用数字平台+卫星店的方式为修理厂服务。在海外某些市场,Mannkando已经建立了其电子商务平台Mannkando Portal,其零部件商店和仓库管理系统E-shop,以及车间管理SaaS系统MannService,将零件供应与修理厂联系起来。这一模式将自有连锁渠道直接建到目标市场,打通一条专属的出海快车道。

相较于前两种模式,感度模式的投入大,运营复杂度高。但我们相信在特定的市场,找到对的合作伙伴,建立高效的团队,中国的配件连锁屹立国际市场也并非遥不可及。

下面就传统的出口模式,分享我们在帮助中国制造商海外市场扩张过程中的经验。

对于最初提到的出口模式,根据目标对象的不同,也有着进一步的细分,包括为海外厂商供货的Co-manufacturer出口模式和销售到流通渠道的直接出口模式。

04、出口模式之Co-manufacturer模式

指中国制造商成为海外其他制造商的供应商。这些 "其他 "制造商通常是拥有全球品牌的公司,他们希望通过供应商来扩大产品范围、品类或降低产品成本。

这种市场途径的好处是,它相当简单,不需要额外的投入,可以产生较大的销量。缺点是这些拥有品牌的公司,正在控制你的产品进入他们主导的市场,这在一定程度上可以有效地阻止您在目标市场建立自己的品牌,和其它的独立销售。

05、直接出口模式

直接出口模式也是最常见的模式,它的出口对象通常为海外的配件经销商(Warehouse Distributor)、配件连锁和经销商联盟。

将配件销售给4大连锁一直是很多厂家和贸易商的目标。在美国与我们熟知的连锁有着同样市场份额的还有经销商联盟,如果能将产品销售给这两大主导渠道,这将意味着销量和持续发展的保障。

然而能获得他们的青睐并非易事,这些大买家在决定与供应商做生意之前,会有以下几种准入能力要求。根据我们的经验,我们已经看到了中国制造商在美国发展业务时遇到的一些障碍,大家可以借鉴:

质量:虽然每个制造商都认为他们的质量很好,但这类大买家可能会对供应商进行验厂,对供应商的质量体系和管理水平做出独立判断,以确保产品品质具有可持续的可靠性。这就要求工厂要建立一套完善的质量管理体系。

产品适配范围:相应产品拥有目标市场绝大部分车型的适配性,是与这类买家合作、成为首要供应商的基本条件。通常国内的供应商会在适配范围上受到限制。

行业标准:在美国售后市场目录交换标准(ACES)和产品信息交换标准(PIES)是配件流通的标准语言,这些大买家也会对此提出要求。因此在ACES和PIES的投资通常是必要的。

电子数据传输:越来越多大体量的客户将利用高效的数据交换系统开展业务。拥有数据交换能力的供应商,比不具备这种能力的供应商更有优势。

充足的库存:这类大客户对于他们客户的一个关键价值是拥有充足的库存,能满足客户任意车辆维修的配件需求。因此对于这类大客户的供应商来说,储备足够的库存以满足客户的订单非常重要。

销售支持团队:拥有专职的销售团队有助于促进销量的提升,对于这类大客户,有专职的销售团队与他们对接是非常有必要的。

营销支持:通常这类大客户会要求供应商分摊营销和运营相关的部分业务成本。例如广告预算、数据及系统使用、区域展会、促销和客户激励等。这些费用应被视为做生意的成本。

账期:这类大客户的付款期限可能较长,应在价格谈判中将其考虑入成本。

“汽配出海”被更多的企业视作重要方式。正如我们所看到的,“出海”有许多进入市场的途径,每个途径都有适合的企业和准入的标准。当企业计划发展他们的海外业务时,了解目标市场渠道的准入要求是至关重要的。

从值得信赖的专业人士寻求市场信息和建议是一项明智的投资,它可以让企业清楚地知道要进入目标市场必须具备和发展的能力,同时避免高昂的试错成本。

借用一句中国的老话,"知识就是力量",了解更多,成功的可能越大。

【原文如下】

 “Parts Go Overseas”

In this fast changing automotive aftermarket, getting parts to workshops or consumers can take many different paths and in many different regions of the world.  As the competition in the China domestic market gets tougher and tougher, many companies, including both trading companies and manufacturers, seek overseas expansion, selling their products into overseas markets such as the United States, Brazil, Germany, Mexico, Southeast Asia, Africa and other regions. 

Chinese parts manufacturers see this dynamic and must make strategic decisions on what they believe is their best route to market.

Getting parts to overseas markets can be done in many different ways and there are models on how to execute these expansion plans.  We would like to share with you our experience in helping Chinese manufacturers navigate this overseas market expansion process. 

Let’s examine some of these ways to get your parts to market. 

Export Model: 

Selling into the market with their own brands or the brands requested by the customer.   This is the most basic model for doing business overseas.  Sales are generated in many cases by the manufacturer exhibiting at automotive trade shows such as Frankfurt Automechanika, AAPEX, Shanghai Automechanika, and others.  Sales can be made on an FOB basis or DDP (delivered duty paid) basis. Many manufacturers who do not have an imbedded infrastructure utilize this route to market.  The supplier will market their products to targeted customers who can place container load orders and then distribute the product through their network.   This approach is very efficient, but its drawback is that it limits their sales to customers who can do business this way.  There are hundreds of distributors who cannot buy in container load quantities. 

Cross Border e-commerce Model:

This approach to the market is hot and is growing rapidly.   It is of particular interest to trading companies who may not have the scale or capacity to become a direct supplier to retailers or distributors. 

MannKando Model: 

The Chinese “Pep Boys” ; employing digital marketing + satellite stores to serve workshops.  In certain markets, MannKando has developed a system to link parts supply to the service provider.  This model enables a quick response to the requirements of the workshop.  Mannkando has built up its e-commerce platform, Mannkando Portal, its parts store and warehouse management system, E-shop, itw workshop management  SaaS system, MannService.  This is a streamlined path of parts from plants to workshops. 

There are some variations of the Export Model

Co-manufacturer Model: Chinese manufacturers can also choose to do business with other manufacturers.  The “other” manufacturers typically are companies with global brands who look to suppliers to expand range or source product at lower costs.  The benefits of this route to market are that it is fairly simple and can generate significant volume.  The disadvantage is that some “other” company is controlling your parts into markets that they dominate; this can effectively block any independent brand building or direct selling. 

Direct selling Model: 

Direct sales can be made to retailers, marketing groups (and their members), and other warehouse distributors.  Many of these big buyers have set up sourcing offices in China to find and select manufactures to meet their needs. While selling direct to this category of customers can be very profitable; there are some important requirements or qualifications that come with these commercial relationships. 

These big buyers will look for the following kind of “foundational” or qualifying capabilities before deciding to do business with a supplier: 

From our experience, we have seen many of the barriers that Chinese manufacturers have encountered as they develop their business in the United States. 

Some examples: 

--Quality—while every manufacturer may have their view that their quality is good, some of the bigger buyers will conduct quality audits of a supplier to get an independent opinion on product quality and the quality management systems to insure sustainable reliability. 

--Coverage   Having applications to cover a very large percentage of the car parc is often a requirement for doing direct business or becoming a primary supplier.   Limited skus limit sales and thus could be a disqualifier for doing business. 

--Industry standards.   Aftermarket Catalog Exchange Standards (ACES) and Product Information Exchange Standards (PIES) typically is a requirement of these big buyers.  Making the investment in these standards is usually necessary. 

--Electronic data transmission.   The more sophisticated customers will conduct business utilizing efficient data transmission networks.  Suppliers who have the capability to send/receive data have an advantage over those who do not have this capability. 

--Availability.   A key customer value that these customers deliver is having a part that meets the needs of the vehicles in the car parc.  Providing coverage for a very high percentage of the car parc is usually a prerequisite for doing business.  A specific sku might be in the manufacturers catalog, but not in the available inventory. 

--Sale Support.  Having a dedicated selling effort for your product can drive sales.  Many of these large buyers require that their suppliers invest in a sales function. 

--Marketing support.  Usually this category of buyer will require the supplier to participate in marketing and business building activities.  Some examples of what distributors may ask the manufacturer to do include contribution to their advertising budget, their data warehouse cost, new store openings, regional shows,  special promotions and incentives for their customers. These costs  should be considered a cost of doing business. 

--Payment terms.  Long payment terms can be expected for this class of customer and should be factored into the negotiated price. Chinese manufacturers are all looking to expand their business; often times the expansion initiatives call for “Parts Go Overseas”

As we have seen, there are many routes to market; each with their own set of advantages and requirements.  As suppliers plan and develop their overseas business it is critically important to understand the requirements of taking their product to market in these various channels.  Knowing these requirements can help craft the right expansion strategy for any supplier. 

Seeking advice and recommendations on market entry requirements from trusted sources is a wise investment that can communicate what is expected of the manufacturers in overseas markets.   Also, seeking advice from those how have had experience in the overseas markets can help to avoid costly mistakes. 

As a saying goes, “Knowledge is Power”.

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